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Answers for Questions relating to VINTAGE AUDIO EQUIPMENT
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Turtnable / Record Changer
How to install / replace a phono cartridge and adjsut all needed properly










A cartridge mounted in it's head shell and cartridge wiring attached.

Question:©How do I install / replace the cartridge with a new one?
©2008 ultraelectronicactiv.com
Answer: As to cartridge installation: Here brief instructions: install cartridge in head shell, which consists of: connecting the head shell wires to the cartridge and install mounting screws.. The head shell wires are color coded

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by what function they have: red = audio right channel (R) , white = audio left channel (L), green = right ground (RG), blue = left ground (LG) ; (and sometimes inside the turtnable: black as the grounding / shield of the tone arm). The 4 connector pins at the phono cartridge are labled corresponding at the back of the cartridge: L , LG, R , RG.
With new cartridge there are usually 2 sets of screws supplied. Select the ones that best match your installation. The goal is that screws are not too long and not to short to mount the cartridge. In most installations: the screw head is ment to be coming form the op of the head shell. The nuts to tighten the cartridge at the bottom (see picture).


As to cartridge alignment: After cartridge hook-up and mounting complete: Tighten cartridge mounting screws so that the cartridge may not move by itself, but still leave screws loose enough, so to that the cartridge may be moved within the shell to perform the following alignments. Them use a "protractor" (download at: enjoythemusic.com) and place protractor onto the platter of the turntable. Follow the instructions that come with the protractor, which is: move tone arm with head shell, cartridge and stylus installed to the first position on protractor. Align the cartridge to the lines at protractor. Then move tone arm as above to the second position on the protractor and align again. The alignments are: tracking angle - the rotation / orientation of the cartridge in relation to the head shell.




And: Overhang - how far forward or backward the cartridge needs to be moved within the head shell. It may take several times to repeat above alignment steps alternating until the alignments match in both positions. Once they do match, the cartridge position is aligned within the head shell and screws can be carefully tightened.

Question:©How to set up the tone arm to work with the new cartridge
©2008 ultraelectronicactiv.com
Answer: As to tone arm adjustments: In order to work properly the needle or also known as "stylus" needs to have a certain weight applied to it to "track" properly. How much that needs to be can usually be found in the instructions that came with the cartridge / replacement stylus, but generally it is between 1.6 and 2.2 gramms averaging about 1.8 to 2.0 gramms (for 78 stylie: 2.5-3.0 gramms). Most turntables have a counter weight with a readout scale (see "dial" in photo below) that shows the adjusted tracking force, so no external stylus scale is needed. The first step is always to zero the scale, so that the propper tracking force can be added. Zeroing is done by adjusting the counter weight on the rear of the tone arm, usually by turning it, so that the tone arm balances like a scale in mid air, so that the tone arm slightly lifts from it's rest and is parallel to the ground. Once that adjustment point is found: hold the counter weight (see photo below) and use the other hand to adjust the dial to zero. Then relase the holding hand and adjust the tracking force to the desired value by turning the counter weight by it's body counterclockwise (as seen form the front of the TT). Once complete: set the "anti scating" dial to the same value. See anti scating for more detail.
2008 ultraelectronicactiv.com
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Photo identifies the parts to be adjusted at the toen arm













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